This Article is From WikiPedia en.Wikipedia.org
Monterrey (Spanish pronunciation: [monteˈrei]) (also known as "Sultana del Norte" (Sultan of the North), is the capital city of the northeastern Mexican state of Nuevo León. It has the third largest metropolitan area in Mexico, after Mexico City. The demonym of Monterrey is Regiomontano(a).
Monterrey is located in northeast Mexico, at the foothills of the Sierra Madre Oriental. The recorded history of Monterrey starts in 1596, with the foundation by Diego de Montemayor. In the years after the Mexican Independence War, Monterrey became an important business center. With the establishment of Fundidora Monterrey, the city experienced industrial growth. Monterrey is an important industrial and business center, serving as operation host for an array of Mexican companies, including CEMEX, Vitro and Cervecería Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma and also for international companies such as Carrier, Daewoo, General Electric, Gamesa, LG and Teleperformance, among others. Monterrey is known for its hot weather in summer reaching 40 °C (104 °F) or more for three consecutive months, being one of the warmest major cities in Mexico.
Nickname(s): Sultan of the North, The City of the Mountains
Motto: Work Tempers the Spirit
Coordinates: 25°40'N 100°18'W 
In the mid-1500s, the valley which Monterrey now occupies was known as the Extremadura Valley, an area largely unexplored by the Spanish. Several expeditions led by Alberto del Canto tried to colonize the area, the most important in 1577, but were always unsuccessful because the population left for more prosperous towns. The Spanish expeditionary Luis Carvajal y de la Cueva negotiated with King Philip II of Spain to establish a territory in northern New Spain, which would be called Nuevo León, the "New Kingdom of León". In 1580 he arrived in the newly granted lands but it was not until 1582 that he established a settlement called San Luis Rey de Francia within present-day Monterrey. New Kingdom of León was an enormous area extending westwards from the port of Tampico to the limits of Nueva Vizcaya ("New Vizcaya", now State of Chihuahua), and around 1,000 kilometers northwards. Carvajal's plans of colonization were frustrated by the Spanish Inquisition that accused and jailed him. For eight years Nuevo León was abandoned and uninhabited but finally, a third expedition of twelve families led by Diego de Montemayor founded Ciudad Metropolitana de Nuestra Señora de Monterrey ("Metropolitan City of Our Lady of Monterrey") on September 20, 1596, next to a spring called Ojos de Agua de Santa Lucia, where the Museum of Mexican History is now located.
During the years of Spanish rule, Monterrey remained a small city, and its population varied from a few hundred to only dozens. The city was a place that facilitated trade between San Antonio (now in Texas), Tampico and from Saltillo to the center of the country. Tampico's port brought many products from Europe, while Saltillo concentrated the Northern Territories' trade with the capital, Mexico City. San Antonio was the key trade point with the northern foreign colonies (British and French).
In the 19th century, after the Mexican Independence War, Monterrey rose as a key economic center for the newly formed nation, especially due to its balanced ties between Europe (with its connections to Tampico), the United States (with its connections to San Antonio), and the capital (through Saltillo). In 1824, the "New Kingdom of León" became the State of Nuevo León, and Monterrey was selected as its capital. However, the political instability that followed the first 50 years of the new country allowed two American invasions and an internal secession war, during which the Governor of the State annexed the Coahuila and Tamaulipas states, designating Monterrey as the capital of the enlarged state.
In 1846, the earliest large-scale engagement of the Mexican-American War took place in the city, known as the Battle of Monterrey. Mexican forces were forced to surrender but only after successfully repelling US forces during the first few advances on the city. The battle inflicted high casualties on both sides, much of them resulting from hand-to-hand combat within the walls of the city center.
During the last decade of the 19th century, the city of Monterrey was linked by railroad, which benefitted industry. It was during this period that José Eleuterio González founded the Hospital Civil which is now one of the best public hospitals in the northeast of Mexico, and serves as medical school support to the School of Medicine of the Autonomous University of Nuevo León (UANL). Vicente Ferrara founded the Fundidora de Fierro y Acero de Monterrey, Parque Fundidora]</ref> a steel-producing company that accelerated the already fast industrialization of the city and became one of the world's biggest at its time.1988, Hurricane Gilbert caused great damage to the city; the Santa Catarina River overflowed, causing about 100 deaths and severe economic damage.
The city has hosted international events such as the 2002 United Nation Conference on Financing for Development with the participation of more than 50 Heads of State and Government, as well as other ministers and senior delegates from over 150 countries. The conference resulted in the adoption of the Monterrey Consensus, which has become one relevant reference point for international development and cooperation. In 2004, the OAS Special Summit of the Americas was attended by almost all the presidents of the Americas. In 1986, several official games of the 1986 FIFA World Cup were hosted.
In 2007, Monterrey held the Universal Forum of Cultures with four million visitors.
The city has grown from a population of 7,000 in 1798 to 1,133,814 in 2005, of which 559,877 were men, and 573,837 were women. According to the national INEGI population census, of the total population of the state of Nuevo León, 27% lived in the municipality of Monterrey.
The Monterrey metropolitan area is the third most populous city in Mexico with more than 3.7 million. It is composed of the adjoined municipalities of Apodaca, Escobedo, García, Guadalupe, Juárez, San Nicolás de los Garza, San Pedro Garza García, and Santa Catarina.
Monterrey is connected with the USA border, the sea and inland Mexico through different roads, including the Carretera Nacional (also known as the Panamerican Highway) that runs from Nuevo Laredo to Mexico City and south, and the Carretera Interoceánica connecting Matamoros with the port of Mazatlán on the Pacific; it is also crossed by highways 40, 45, 57. The divided highway Monterrey-Saltillo-Matehuala-Mexico City is the main land corridor to interior Mexico.
There are several between-cities bus lines at the bus station downtown. There are arrivals and departures into deeper Mexico, to the U.S. border and into the United States.
Monterrey is also connected by at least three important railroad freight lines: Nuevo Laredo-Mexico City, Monterrey-Tampico, and Monterrey-Pacific (Mazatlán).
The city has a rapid transit system called Metrorrey, which currently has 2 lines.
There are two international airports: General Mariano Escobedo International Airport (served by major international carriers and moving more than 6.5 million passengers in 2007) and Del Norte International Airport, a primarily private airport.
Monterrey is linked through frequent non-stop flights to many Mexican cities and to key United States hubs (Atlanta, Chicago-O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, Detroit, Houston-Intercontinental, JFK/New York, and Las Vegas). Monterrey is the second most important city for the operating routes of Aeroméxico.
Five airlines have their operational bases and headquarters in Monterrey, Aviacsa, Aeroméxico Connect, Viva Aerobus and Magnicharters. There is no public transportation from Monterrey International Airport to the city. However, a cartel of taxi services link the airport with the city and charge around $20 US for a one-way ride to the city. From this airport, there is a bus shuttle to nearby Saltillo. Inter-city bus services run daily into the interior, as well as north to the US border and points beyond.
Monterrey has some fine hospitals, including three with Joint Commission accreditation - the Joint Commission is a private healthcare accreditation group. There are both public and private hospitals. The Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS) has two major regional hospitals in the city, the Specialties Regional Hospital # 33 and the Gynecology and Obsterics Regional Hospital, serving also the northeastern states of Coahuila and Tamaulipas. Several smaller IMSS hospitals can be found such as the Traumatology and Orthopedics Hospital and the General Hospital # 25. State government owns the Metropolitan Hospital, located in the suburb of San Nicolás de los Garza and the Hospital of the Children and Mother Care in Guadalupe suburb.
The University of Nuevo León runs the public University Hospital, with a high-level shock-trauma unit and a specialized clinic for child cancer treatment. It is recognized as the best public hospital in the city and the UANL School of Medicine as one of the best in the country. On the other hand the Tecnológico de Monterrey runs the Hospital San José-Tec de Monterrey private hospital.
Monterrey has healthcare standards above the average for Mexico. It has several hospitals, including CHRISTUS Muguerza, San José-Tec de Monterrey, OCA Hospital - the largest private hospital in the city, the Santa Engracia Hospital, Hospital Cima of the International Hospital Corporation, San Vicente Hospital and the San Lucas Hospital (Plastic Surgery). Its convenient location, low prices and quality of medical care have made of Monterrey a very popular medical tourism destination for United States patients.
Monterrey is a major industrial center in northern Mexico, producing a GDP of 78.5 billion US dollars (2006). The city's GDP per capita in 2007 was 21,788 US dollars. The city was rated by Fortune magazine in 1999 as the best city in Latin America for business and is currently ranked third best by the América Economía magazine.
Because of its strong steel industry, it is often called "the Pittsburgh of Mexico". The city has prominent positions in sectors such as steel, cement, glass, auto parts, and brewing. In 1999 Fortune magazine recognized Monterrey as the best city in Latin America in which to do business. The magazine attributes its economic wealth in part to its proximity with the United States-Mexican border and mentions Monterrey as a significant city with economic links to the United States.
Industrialization was accelerated in the mid 19th century by the Compañia Fundidora de Fierro y Acero Monterrey a steel-processing company. Today Monterrey is home to transnational conglomerates such as Cemex (the world's third largest cement company), FEMSA (Coca-Cola Latin America), Alfa (petrochemicals, food, telecommunications and auto parts), Axtel (telecommunications), Vitro (glass), Selther (leading mattress and rest systems firm in Latin America), Gruma (food), and Banorte (financial services). The FEMSA corporation owns a large brewery, the Cervecería Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma that produces the brands Sol, Tecate, Indio, Dos Equis and Carta Blanca among others. By the end of the same year, there were more than 13,000 manufacturing companies, 55,000 retail stores, and more than 52,000 service firms in Monterrey.
The metals sector, dominated by iron and steel, accounted for 6 percent of manufacturing GNP in 1994. Mexico's steel industry is centered in Monterrey, where the country's first steel mills opened in 1903. Steel processing plants in Monterrey, privatized in 1986, accounted for about half of Mexico's total steel output in the early 1990s.
Monterrey was ranked 94th worldwide and fifth in Latin America in terms of Quality of Life according to Mercer Human Resource Consulting (2006), and was ranked second in 2005 and fourth in 2006, according to America Economia.
Some of the shopping malls in the city include Paseo San Pedro, Plaza Fiesta San Agustín, Galerías Monterrey, and Galerías Valle Oriente, which distribute goods and services to the Mexican population.
Monterrey has an estimated 3.7% rate of illiteracy. In 2005, from an estimated 983,359 inhabitants above 6 years of age, 36,689 were illiterates.
In 2005, the city had 72 public libraries, with 298,207 books available, serving an estimated 478,047 readers.
Monterrey is also the headquarters of the Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Studies, ITESM or "Tec de Monterrey").
The Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (Autonomous University of Nuevo León, UANL), is the third largest Mexican university and is ranked by the Reader's Digest-AC Nielsen Survey 2005 as the top public university in northeast Mexico. Its main campus, Ciudad Universitaria (University City), covers approximately 67,630,000 square metres (17,000 acres). The UANL system comprises 26 colleges (faculties), 22 graduate divisions, 24 high schools, 1 center of bilingual education and 3 technical high schools. The medical school of the UANL is considered one of the most advanced in Latin America.
Founded in 1969 with the support of local leading multinational corporations such as Cemex, Alfa, Femsa, Gamesa, Protexa & CYDSA, the Universidad Regiomontana is a private university offering high school, undergraduate and graduate programs. With agreements with more than 200 universities across the globe, it is member of GATE (Global Alliance for Transnational Education), FIMPES (Federación de Instituciones Mexicanas Particulares de Educación Superior) and holds an ISO 9001 Certification. Its urban campus attracts many working professionals who complement and enrich the academic experience.
The Universidad de Monterrey was founded by the religious congregations of the Sisters of Immaculate Mary of Guadalupe, the nuns of the Sacred Heart and the Marist and La Salle brothers, all of them supported by an association of catholic citizens. On December 2001 was accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS) to deliver bachelor and master level educational programs.
The city is home to the Monterrey College of Music and Dance, which offers degrees in performing arts.
The most traditional dish from Monterrey is cabrito, kid goat cooked on embers based on the Jewish cuisine of the founders of the city. Other local dishes and customs that perhaps date back to the Crypto-Judaism of these founders are the "semita" (bread without leavening), the capirotada dessert (a mix of cooked bread, cheese, raisins, peanuts, and crystallized sugarcane juice), and the relative absence of pork dishes. Another famous local dish is machacado con huevo.
Carne asada on weekends remains a tradition among Monterrey families. It is usually served with grilled onions, baked potatoes and sausages or chopped as tacos. Locally brewed beer and cola are an almost mandatory part of the weekly ritual. The traditional desserts, "glorias" and "obleas," made from goat milk are both traditional candies from Nuevo León.
Monterrey has two soccer teams in the Mexican league, the Club de Fútbol Monterrey, known as Rayados de Monterrey, which uses Estadio Tecnológico, a facility owned by the ITESM rented to the team, to host matches. And the Tigres de la UANL, owned by CEMEX, which hosts matches at Estadio Universitario, at the main campus of the UANL. Both teams are related to the city on the derby, called Clásico Regiomontano. There was a proposed project to build a stadium for both teams, the "Estadio Internacional Monterrey", but the idea was dropped out by both teams. The project is still being promoted, and the city is giving a positive view of it, but the UANL Tigres have yet to finish their stadium contract and the Rayados are planning a stadium of their own. Club de Fútbol Monterrey plans to build a new stadium able to sit a crowd of 50,000. It is scheduled to be finished by 2011, named "Estadio de Fútbol Monterrey". The new stadium is to be financed by the club's managing firm, FEMSA, and will remain the club's property for fifty years before becoming property of the government. The city hosted 8 matches during the 1986 FIFA World Cup.
In addition, two professional indoor soccer teams were hosted in the past, the Monterrey La Raza, members of the Continental Indoor Soccer League and World Indoor Soccer League and the Monterrey Fury, members of the current Major Indoor Soccer League. The city was awarded another franchise to begin play in the fall of 2007 in the MISL.
Baseball has a long history in the city, where it became the most popular sport during the early 20th century. Monterrey has been champion of the Little League World Series three times (1957, 1958 and 1997), and has been host of US Major League Baseball games. In the Mexican Baseball League, the Sultanes de Monterrey are one important team every season and have won the national title several times. In the year 2003, the city unsuccessfully attempted to buy (and relocate to Monterrey) the Montreal Expos franchise of the US Major League Baseball.The Sultanes de Monterrey, are a Mexican League baseball team based in Monterrey, Mexico. They are in the Northern Division. The team was formed May 20, 1939 as Carta Blanca (A local beer brand, owned by Cerveceria Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma which owned the team). The team was also known as the gray ghosts. Soon, they became one of the most important teams in the league, winning its first championship in 1943. The Sultanes play in the Estadio de Beisbol Monterrey, the largest baseball stadium in Mexico.
There are two professional basketball teams: Fuerza Regia that plays in the national league, Liga Nacional de Baloncesto Profesional and the Monterrey Venom that plays in the minor league American Basketball Association. Fuerza Regia plays at the Monterrey Arena while the Monterrey Poison plays at the gymnasium of the ITESM.
The city has hosted the Champ Car race in Fundidora Park from 2001 to 2005 and hosted the A1 Grand Prix of Nations on February 2006.
In 2004 Monterrey hosted the World Karate Federation Senior World Championships. In April 2004, Monterrey's Arena Monterrey became the first city to host WWE in Mexico. In 2007 Monterrey hosted the Women's WTBA World Tenpin Bowling Championships
The city has two college Football teams, the Auténticos Tigres (UANL) and the Borregos (ITESM) that play in the National College League (ONEFA). There is also a local children's league called AFAIM.
People can also find golf, fishing, camping, and extreme-sports outdoors near the city (bungee jumping at Cola de Caballo, rock-climbing, hiking, mountain bike). In particular there is international-level rock-climbing places like la Huasteca, Potrero Chico and many other canyons.
Starting 2009 the Monterrey Open is held at Monterrey. This is a professional women's tennis tournament. The event is affiliated with the Women's Tennis Association (WTA), and is be part of the International tournaments on the WTA Tour.
In 2010, Monterrey will host the 2010 International Ice Hockey Federation World U18 Championship at the Monterrey Ice Complex.
Starting in the 60's Monterrey has been known for "Norteño" music which is the trademark music of the city, bands like Ramon Ayala, Pesado, Duelo and other Mexican "Regional" music bands perform at the different clubs in the city. Monterrey, Nuevo León has witnessed the birth of several bands that have become internationally acclaimed. Their genres vary considerably. Bands include Plastilina Mosh, Control Machete, Kinky, El Gran Silencio, Jumbo, Panda, Genitallica, Zurdok, Heavy Metal Band "IRA", Maligno, Stentor and Avatar. Gothic Metal represented by bands like MutuM and Eon. The Symphonic Black Meta like selvmordinnehelvete, Evilheart and Aiwass. The song "Los Oxidados" by Plastilina Mosh opens the 2005 movie "Mr. & Mrs. Smith". Kinky performed at the 2004 edition of the Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival in California, along with Radiohead, The Cure and The Killers. A few of the most popular live music venues in Monterrey include Arena Monterrey, Auditorio Coca-Cola, Cafe Iguana, Ibex Rockbar, Arena Santa Lucia, McMullen's and Uma Bar, all located in the Barrio Antiguo section of the city.
- Santa Lucia Riverwalk, an artificial river built between 1996 and 2007. It currently joins the Macroplaza with the Fundidora Park.
- The Cerro de la Silla (Saddle Mountain).
- La Macroplaza, one of the world's largest plazas, is the cultural and administrative heart of the city featuring remarkable monuments, green areas and buildings.
- Faro del Comercio (Lighthouse of Commerce), another trademark of the city. This monuments beams a green laser around the city at night.
- Barrio Antiguo (old neighborhood), area where bars, cafes, art galleries and restaurants can be found. On November of every year the Festival Cultural Barrio Antiguo took place with national and international artists and performers, but now is replaced with the Festival Internacional de Santa Lucia, which now takes place in September.
- The Museum of Modern Art is a post-modern Mexican architecture designed by Ricardo Legorreta with the objective of creating different ambiances for artists and visitors from all around the world.
- Monterrey's Inukshuk is one of only a handful of authentic examples to be found outside Canada of these stone monuments from the high Arctic. The sculpture was created in situ by the renowned Inuit artist Bill Nasogaluak in 2007 and was a gift to the state of Nuevo León from the Canadian Chamber of Commerce and the Government of Canada.
- Fundidora Park is a large urban park that contains old foundry buildings, 120 hectares of natural ambiance, artificial lakes, playgrounds, alternative cinema (Cineteca), museum (Photo Collection, the State Plastic Arts Collection, Exhibits and Spaces), hotel, auditorium and convention center.
- Puente de la Unidad (sometimes called Puente Atirantado) is a suspension bridge that crosses the Río Santa Catarina and joins San Pedro Garza García with Monterrey.
- The Alfa Planetarium is the first IMAX dome built in Latin America and fourth in the world.
- The Government Palace of Nuevo León is a pink marble of Neoclassical architecture where the governor's office is located.
- El Cerro del Obispado (Bishopric Hill) which includes a public, scenic lookout called Mirador del Obispado, a Monumental flag and the museum inside the Palacio del Obispado (the Bishopric Palace).
- ITESM, ITESM has two distinctive buildings CEDES which houses the administration of the ITESM nationwide system and the CETEC which houses the main computer classroom and other offices.
- La Cervecería Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma, with its XIX century buildings and where the national Baseball Hall of Fame (Salón de la Fama) is located.
- The Cola de Caballo (Horse tail) waterfall, on the mountains near the towns of Santiago and El Cercado, about 35 km (22 mi) south.
- On the way to the Cola de Caballo waterfall (Carretera Nacional going to Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas), in Santiago, the Presa Rodrigo Gomez or "La Boca" ("La Boca" Dam) lays nested between green hills.
The 2007 Universal Forum of Cultures was an international cultural event held in Monterrey from September 20 to December 8, 2007.
Also the city wanted to bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics but the Mexican Olympic Committee rejected to support it. The city council are now bidding for the 2020 Olympic games.
Backed by a young people's movement, students of the universities of Monterrey formed the Monterrey 2014 Foundation with the purpose of hosting the 2014 Summer Youth Olympics. In 2009 the Mexican Olympic Committee gave the bid to Guadalajara which later on withdrew the bid late January of 2010. The Monterrey 2014 Foundation declared it will bid for 2018 since Guadalajara lost the 2014 bid.
This Article is From WikiPedia en.Wikipedia.org